Training in the Installation of Concrete Fasteners
There are many different types of concrete fasteners
that can be used in a variety of base materials including concrete,
brick and block. The installation process for each type of anchor is
unique. The installation process for each should be followed carefully
in order to properly set and achieve its intended holding values. Some
of the steps are the same for each anchor and other steps differ to meet
the needs of each unique anchor. There are different types of concrete
fasteners to meet a variety of job and base material requirements as
well as personal preferences. In this training, we will deal with how
concrete fasteners work, the steps to install these anchors and how to
install each anchor properly.
How Concrete Anchors Work
are referred to as expansion type concrete fasteners. They derive their
holding values from friction. The friction is obtained by the outward
pressure created by expanding the anchor against the walls of the hole
that is drilled in the base material. All expansion anchors work on this
principle. The only one that does not is the concrete screw. The concrete screw or Tapcon® actually taps or cuts threads into the base material as it is inserted into the hole.
type of anchor has a minimum embedment- the minimum distance (in
inches) that the anchor must be inserted into the base material for it
to obtain its holding values. The deeper the embedment into the base
material, the better the holding values. Tapcons have a maximum
embedment of 1-3/4". Expansion anchors must be spaced a minimum of 10
anchor diameters away from each other and no closer than 5 anchor
diameters from an unsupported edge. Anchors used in outdoor or caustic
environments/atmospheres should be stainless steel or zinc plated.
Steps to Installing Concrete Fasteners
install a concrete anchor, a hole must be drilled in the base material.
Carbide tipped drill bits (that meet ANSI standards) must be used as
they are tolerance-matched to the concrete fastener. A hammer drill*
must also be used because it will drill the hole correctly and is
designed to break up the base material as it hammers. The hole should be
drilled 1/4" to 1/2" deeper into the base material than the anchor will
penetrate. This allows for any material to fall when the anchor is
inserted into the hole. After the hole is drilled, it must be cleaned of
all debris, material or dust.
Remember to use safety goggles and earplugs during drilling and to
always follow the manufacturers' safety precautions when using power
Wedge Anchor - for use in concrete only
Drill hole into the concrete using a carbide tipped bit that meets ANSI
standards. Bit size = anchor diameter when working with wedge anchors.
Drill a hole 1/2" deeper than the anchor will penetrate into the
concrete making sure that the minimum embedment requirements are met.
The hole can be drilled while the fixture is in place. It is important
to make sure that the bit diameter being used will fit through the hole
in the fixture.
2. Clean out the hole using a wire brush, compressed air, vacuum, blow out bulb or other method.
Put the nut and washer onto the wedge anchor and make sure that the
nut is on the last threads (this will protect the threads from damage
when the wedge anchor is hammered into the hole in the concrete).
Insert the wedge anchor through the fixture's hole and into the hole in
the base material. This should be a very tight fit- use a hammer to
complete the installation until the nut and washer are tight against the
fixture. It is important that the threads go below the surface of
either the base material or the fixture.
5. Turn the nut clockwise, until finger tight.
6. Using a wrench, turn the nut 3-4 times until snug. The recommended torque values can be found here.
Sleeve Anchors - for use in concrete, brick or block
Using ANSI standard drill bits, carefully drill a hole in the base
material. Hole size = Bit size when installing sleeve anchors. Make sure
the hole is always drilled 1/2" deeper than the sleeve anchor will
penetrate the base material. Minimum embedments also need to be met. The hole can be drilled with the fixture in place making sure the bit will fit through the fixture hole.
2. Clean the hole of all debris made during drilling.
3. Sleeve anchors
come fully assembled with a nut and washer. It is important that the
nut is on the end of the threads to protect the threads during
Insert the sleeve anchor through the fixture hole and into the hole you
drilled in the base material. A hammer will be required to pound the
sleeve anchor into the material until the washer and nut are tight
against the fixture.
5. Tighten nut until finger tight, always turning clockwise.
6. Using a wrench, turn 2-4 times until you are sure it is snug.
Drop-in Anchors - for use in concrete only
1. The diameter of a drop-in anchor refers to the inside diameter. The hole to be drilled = the same diameter of the outside of the anchor.
Carbide tipped drill bits (meeting ANSI standards) must be used. The
hole needs to be drilled 1/4" deeper than the anchor will penetrate. The
hole can't be drilled while the fixture is in place due to the fact
that the hole is larger than the diameter of the bolt being inserted
into it. To use a drop in anchor- set the fixture in place, mark where
the holes should be drilled, remove the fixture and then drill the
2. Clean the hole of any debris before continuing.
Insert the anchor into the hole. A setting tool is required to set the
anchor. Setting tools will correspond to the inside diameter of the drop
in anchor. Example: a 3/8" drop in anchor requires a 3/8" setting tool.
Setting tool is placed inside the threaded portion of the anchor and
struck until the lip of the setting tool touches the lip of the drop in
anchor. This will ensure that the anchor is fully set in the concrete.
4. Place the fixture over the drop in anchor and thread the bolt through the fixture and into the drop in anchor.
Strike Anchors - for use in concrete only
1. Anchor diameter = hole size when working with strike anchors.
The proper sized carbide drill bit must meet ANSI standards. Hole
should be drilled 1/2" deeper to allow space for any dust created during
2. Clean the hole of all debris before continuing installation.
Strike anchor needs to be inserted through the fixture and into the
hole with the nut, washer and set-pin in place until the nut and washer
are tight against the fixture.
Using a properly sized hammer for the diameter of the anchor, set the
pin with a number of square/sharp strikes to the head of the pin until
the pin is flush with the top of the anchor. There is no need to use
torque to set the anchor since it is set with the correct set pin.
Lag Shields - for use in concrete, brick or block
1. Lag shields
are female type anchors. The designated diameter of the anchor = the
inside diameter of the lag screw that will be placed into it. Hole size
must be larger than the inside diameter. Example: a 3/8" diameter lag
shield requires a 5/8" hole. Properly sized ANSI carbide bits must be
used to drill the holes for lag shield anchors.
2. Clean holes of any debris.
3. Place the lag shield in the hole with the closed end of the lag shield inserted first.
Fixture is then placed over the lag shield, inserting a lag screw
through the fixture and into the lag screw. Use a wrench to turn the lag
screw clockwise until tight.
All of this
information should assist in the safe and correct installation and use
of concrete anchors and fasteners no matter what your application may
Please remember with all fastening jobs to keep safety in mind. Always follow safety instructions on all tools, and refer to manufacturer's installation instructions when available and always remember to wear safety goggles!
Article written by: Bob Carlisle, President Concrete Fastening Systems, Inc